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Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
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"Pittsburg" redirects here. For the region, see Pittsburgh Metropolitan Area. For Pittsburg, see Pittsburg (disambiguation).
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Skyline of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Official flag of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Flag Official seal of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Nickname: Steel City, City of Champions, The 'Burgh, Iron City, Steel Town, City of Bridges, The College City, Football Capital of the World
Motto: Benigno Numine ("With the Benevolent Deity")
Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Coordinates: 40°26′30″N 80°00′00″W / 40.44167, -80
Country Flag of United States United States
Commonwealth Pennsylvania
County Allegheny
Founded November 25, 1758
Incorporated April 22, 1794 (borough)
March 18, 1816 (city)
- Mayor Luke Ravenstahl (D)
- City 151.1 km˛ (58.3 sq mi)
- Land 143.9 km˛ (55.5 sq mi)
- Water 7.2 km˛ (2.8 sq mi)
- Metro 172 km˛ (447 sq mi)
Elevation 372.77 m (1,223 ft)
Population (U.S. Census Estimate, 2006)
- City 312,819
- Density 2,174/km˛ (5,636/sq mi)
- Metro 2,370,776
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
- Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
*Ralph Waldo Emerson famously held that America starts beyond the Alleghenies[2].
Website: www.city.pittsburgh.pa.us

Pittsburgh (pronounced [ˈpɪts.bɚg]) is the second largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is the county seat of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Built on land between the confluence of the Allegheny, Ohio and Monongahela rivers and the surrounding hills, Pittsburgh features a skyline of 151 skyscrapers,[3] 446 bridges[4], two inclines and a pre-revolutionary fortification. Residents of the city are called Pittsburghers. The downtown is a compact and walkable area located on the triangular land at the confluence of the rivers.

Pittsburgh was fueled by the manufacturing industry until the 1980s when the United States steel industry collapsed. The city's economy is now largely based on healthcare, education, technology and financial services.[5] Robotics, in particular, is a major sector of the local economy. The Wall Street Journal dubbed the city "Roboburgh."

Despite a declining population,[6] Pittsburgh remains the principal cultural and economic influence in the eastern Ohio River Valley. Because of its low cost of living, economic opportunities, education, transportation and medical infrastructures, Pittsburgh is consistently ranked high in livability surveys. In 2007 Pittsburgh was named "America's Most Livable City" by Places Rated Almanac.[7]

* 1 History
o 1.1 Name and spelling
* 2 Geography and climate
o 2.1 Cityscape
* 3 Demographics
o 3.1 Local dialect
* 4 Economy
o 4.1 Major employers
* 5 Government and politics
* 6 Education
* 7 Culture
o 7.1 Pittsburgh in film
o 7.2 Livability
+ 7.2.1 Crime
o 7.3 Media
o 7.4 Sports
* 8 Infrastructure
o 8.1 Transportation
o 8.2 Airports
o 8.3 Port Authority
o 8.4 Telecommunications
* 9 Sites of interest
* 10 Sister cities
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 External links

[edit] History

Main article: History of Pittsburgh

The first Europeans arrived in the 1710s as traders. Michael Bezallion was the first to pen a report on the forks of the Ohio in 1717.[citation needed] About this same time trading camps secured the first settlers in the area. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched a serious expedition to the forks in hopes of uniting French Canada with French Louisiana via rivers.[8] Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia sent Major George Washington to warn the French to withdraw. During 1753–1754, the English hastily built Fort Prince George, but a larger French expedition forced them evacuate. The French then built Fort Duquesne. These events led to the French and Indian War. British General Braddock's campaign (with Washington as second-in-command) to take Fort Duquesne failed, but a year later General John Forbes's subsequent campaign succeeded. After forcing the French to surrender Ft. Duquesne in 1758, he ordered the construction of Fort Pitt, named after British Secretary of State William Pitt the Elder. He also named the settlement between the rivers "Pittsborough."[9]

During Pontiac's Rebellion, Ohio Valley and Great Lakes tribes besieged Fort Pitt for two months. Fort Pitt, unlike Detroit, Mackinac, and other major forts on the frontier was the only one to withstand the Indian uprising and not surrender. In many ways it was Ft. Pitt that assured western expansion by defeating the last great Indian rebellion.[10] Colonel Bouquet defeated Pontiac's forces in the Battle of Bushy Run just to the east of the forks.[11]

In the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the descendants of William Penn purchased from the Six Nations western lands that included most of the present site of Pittsburgh. In 1769, a survey was made of the land situated between the two rivers, called the "Manor of Pittsburgh."[12] Both Virginia and Pennsylvania claimed the Pittsburgh area during colonial times and would continue to do so until 1780 when both states agreed to extend the Mason-Dixon Line westward, placing Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania.
The Fort Pitt Blockhouse, dating to 1764, is the oldest extant structure in the city of Pittsburgh.
The Fort Pitt Blockhouse, dating to 1764, is the oldest extant structure in the city of Pittsburgh.

Following the American Revolution, the village of Pittsburgh continued to grow. One of its earliest industries was building boats for settlers to enter the Ohio Country. In 1784, the laying out of the "Town of Pittsburgh" was completed by Thos. Viceroy of Bedford County and approved by the attorney of the Penns in Philadelphia. The year 1794 saw the short-lived Whiskey Rebellion. The Act of March 5, 1804, which modified the provision of the old charter of the Borough of Pittsburgh in 1794—the original of which is not in existence, so far as known—refers throughout to the "Borough of Pittsburgh."[12][citations needed]

The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods, stimulating American manufacture. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin and glass products. The Act of March 18, 1816 incorporated the City of Pittsburgh. The original charter was burned when the old Court House was destroyed by fire. In the 1830s, many Welsh people from the steelworks of Merthyr migrated to the city following the civil strife and aftermath of the Merthyr Riots of 1831. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh was one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. A great fire burned over a thousand buildings in 1845, but the city rebuilt. By 1857, Pittsburgh's nearly 1,000 factories burned 22,000,000 bushels of coal yearly.

The American Civil War boosted the city's economy with increased production of iron and armaments. Steel production began by 1875, when Andrew Carnegie founded the J. Edgar Thomson Steel Works in Braddock, which eventually evolved into the Carnegie Steel Company. The success and growth of Carnegie Steel was attributed to Henry Bessemer, inventor of the Bessemer Process.
Monongahela River Scene, 1857
Monongahela River Scene, 1857[13]

In 1901, the U.S. Steel Corporation was formed, and by 1911 Pittsburgh was producing between a third and a half of the nation's various types of steel. The city's population swelled to half a million, many of whom were immigrants from Europe. During World War II, Pittsburgh produced 95 million tons of steel.[9] By this time, the pollution from burning coal and steel production created a black fog (or smog). Following the war, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance." This much-acclaimed effort was followed by the "Renaissance II" project, begun in 1977 and focusing more on cultural and neighborhood development than its predecessor. The industrial base continued to expand through the 1960s, but beginning in the 1970s and 1980s, the steel industry in the region imploded, with massive layoffs and mill closures. Beginning in the 1980s, the city shifted its economic base to services, tourism, medicine and high technology. During this transition, the city population shrank from 680,000 in 1950 to 330,000 in 2000.

Multiple organ transplants were pioneered in Pittsburgh by Dr. Thomas Starzl in 1983 and Pittsburgh hospitals remain premier medical research institutions.

[edit] Name and spelling

Main article: Name of Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh was officially named with its present spelling on April 22, 1794, by an act of the Pennsylvania Department, stating: "Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That the said town of Pittsburgh shall be, and the same is hereby, erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."[14]

Pittsburgh is one of the few American cities to be spelled with an h at the end of a burg suffix. For this reason, it is also the most commonly misspelled city in America.[15] While briefly referred to as "Pittsburg" during the late 19th century, in 1911 the Pittsburgh spelling was officially restored.[14]

[edit] Geography and climate
Panoramic view of Downtown at night
Panoramic view of Downtown at night

11-07-2007, 09:27:37
Main article: Climate of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Pittsburgh is located at 40°26′29″N, 79°58′38″W (40.441419, -79.977292).GR1 According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 151.1 km˛ (58.3 mi˛). 144.0 km˛ (55.6 mi˛) of it is land and 7.2 km˛ (2.8 mi˛) of it is water. The total area is 4.75% water.

The city is located on the Allegheny Plateau, where the confluence of the Allegheny River from the Northeast and Monongahela River from the Southeast form the Ohio River. The Downtown area between the rivers is known as the Golden Triangle, the extremity of which is The Point. Pittsburgh occupies the Golden Triangle as well as the slopes of the river valleys, and the ridges beyond. Many of the city's neighborhoods, particularly south of the Monongahela, are steeply sloped. In fact, of all U.S. cities, only San Francisco has a more extreme terrain.

This topography is often utilized for physical activity. The city has some 712 sets comprising 44,645 treads and 24,090 vertical feet (more than San Francisco, Portland and Cincinnati combined) for pedestrians to traverse its many hills. With the drop of pedestrian traffic across much of the city, and the fact that many of these steps fall outside of nuclear neighborhoods, many of these steps have fallen into disuse; many are covered with vines and weeds. There are hundreds of 'paper streets' composed entirely of steps and many other steep streets with steps for sidewalks.[16] Many provide views of the Pittsburgh area.[17]

Steep hills and variable weather make biking challenging and rewarding. The city has established bike trails and walking trails along its riverfronts and hollows. Soon the city will be connected to downtown Washington, D.C. by a continuous bike/running trail through the Alleghenies and along the Potomac Valley, about 95% of this trail length is already completed and is known as the Great Allegheny Passage and Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Towpath.

Due to its position between the Great Lakes and the windward side of the Allegheny mountains, Pittsburgh receives plentiful precipitation which supports the region's lush vegetation.
Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °F 72 76 82 89 91 98 103 100 97 87 82 74
Norm High °F 35.1 38.8 49.5 60.7 70.8 79.1 82.7 81.1 74.2 62.5 50.5 39.8
Norm Low °F 19.9 22.3 30.1 39.1 49.2 57.7 62.4 61 53.9 42.5 34.2 25.3
Rec Low °F -22 -12 -1 14 26 34 42 39 31 16 -1 -12
Precip (in) 2.7 2.37 3.17 3.01 3.8 4.12 3.96 3.38 3.21 2.25 3.02 2.86
Source: USTravelWeather.com [3]

[edit] Cityscape
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Panoramic Photo of Downtown from Grandview Ave on Mt. Washington
Panoramic Photo of Downtown from Grandview Ave on Mt. Washington
View of Downtown and the Roberto Clemente Bridge from the North Shore
View of Downtown and the Roberto Clemente Bridge from the North Shore
Street in Shadyside, a neighborhood in the East End
Street in Shadyside, a neighborhood in the East End
South Side with both the Flats and the Slopes.
South Side with both the Flats and the Slopes.
Common rowhouse scene in Lawrenceville
Common rowhouse scene in Lawrenceville

See also: List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods

The city can be broken down into the Downtown area, called the Golden Triangle[18], and four main areas surrounding it. These four surrounding areas are further subdivided into distinct neighborhoods. These areas, relative to downtown, are known as the North Side, South Side/South Hills, East End, and West End.

See also: Downtown Pittsburgh

Downtown Pittsburgh is tight and compact, featuring many skyscrapers, 9 of which top 500 feet. U.S. Steel Tower is the tallest at 841 feet.[19] The Cultural District comprises a 14 block area of downtown along the Allegheny River. It is packed with theaters and arts venues, and is seeing a growing residential segment. Most significantly, the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust is embarking on Riverparc, a 4-block mixed-use "green" community, featuring 700 residential units and multiple towers between 20–30 stories. The Firstside portion of downtown borders the Monongahela River and the historic Mon Wharf. This area is home to the distinctive PPG Place Gothic glass skyscraper complex. This area too, is seeing a growing residential sector, as new condo towers are constructed and historic office towers are converted to residential use. Downtown is serviced by the Port Authority's light rail subway and multiple bridges leading north and south.[20] It is also home to Point Park University, Pittsburgh Art Institute, Pittsburgh Culinary Institute, a Robert Morris University branch campus and Duquesne University which is located on the border of Downtown and Uptown.

The North Side is home to various neighborhoods in transition. The North Side is primarily composed of residential neighborhoods and is noteworthy for well-constructed and architecturally interesting homes. Many buildings date from the 19th century and are constructed of brick or stone and adorned with decorative woodwork, ceramic tile, slate roofs and stained glass. The North Side is also home to many popular attractions such as Heinz Field, PNC Park, Carnegie Science Center, National Aviary, Andy Warhol Museum, Mattress Factory installation art museum, Children's Museum of Pittsburgh, Penn Brewery and Allegheny Observatory.

The South Side was once an area composed primarily of dense inexpensive housing for mill workers, but has in recent years become a local Pittsburgher destination. The South Side's East Carson Street is one of the most vibrant areas of the city, packed with diverse shopping, ethnic eateries, pulsing nightlife and live music venues. In 1993 the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh purchased the South Side Works steel mill property, and worked together with the community and various developers to create a master plan for a mixed-use development including a riverfront park, office space, housing, health-care facilities, and the Pittsburgh Steelers and Pitt Panthers indoor practice fields. Construction began in 1998, and the Southside Works is now open for business with many store, restaurants, offices, and the world headquarters for American Eagle Outfitters.[21]

The East End is home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Carlow University, Chatham University, The Carnegie Institute's Museums of Art and Natural History, Frick Art & Historical Center (Clayton and the Frick art museum), Phipps Conservatory, Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall, and the Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium. The neighborhoods of Shadyside and Squirrel Hill are large, wealthy neighborhoods featuring large shopping/business districts. Oakland is home to most of the universities and graduate as well as undergraduate students as well as to Schenley Park and the Petersen Events Center. Bloomfield is Pittsburgh's Little Italy and is known for its Italian restaurants and grocers. Lawrenceville is a revitalizing rowhouse neighborhood popular with artists and designers. The Strip District is a popular open-air marketplace by day and one of Pittsburgh's hottest clubbing destinations by night.

The West End includes Mt. Washington, with its famous view of the Downtown skyline and numerous other residential neighborhoods like Sheraden and Elliot.

Pittsburgh's patchwork of neighborhoods still retain an ethnic character reflecting the city's immigrant history. This includes:

* African American: Hill District and Homewood
* Jewish: Squirrel Hill
* Italian: Bloomfield
* German: Troy Hill and East Allegheny
* Polish and other Eastern European: South Side, Lawrenceville, and Polish Hill

Several neighborhoods on the edges of the city are less urban, featuring tree-lined streets, yards and garages giving a more characteristic suburban feel. While other aforementioned neighborhoods, such as Oakland, the South Side, the North Side, Mt. Washington, and Downtown are characterized by a more diverse, urban feel.

[edit] Demographics
Historical populations
Census Pop. %±
1810 4,768

1820 7,248 52.0%
1830 12,568 73.4%
1840 21,115 68.0%
1850 46,601 120.7%
1860 49,221 5.6%
1870 86,076 74.9%
1880 156,389 81.7%
1890 238,617 52.6%
1900 321,616 34.8%
1910 533,905 66.0%
1920 588,343 10.2%
1930 669,817 13.8%
1940 671,659 0.3%
1950 676,806 0.8%
1960 604,332 -10.7%
1970 520,117 -13.9%
1980 423,938 -18.5%
1990 409,879 -3.3%
2000 394,721 -3.7%

[edit] Local dialect

See also: Pittsburgh English

The Pittsburgh English dialect, also known as "Pittsburghese" , derives from influences from the Scottish-Irish, Welsh, German, Central European and Eastern European immigrants. Locals who speak in this dialect are sometimes referred to as "Yinzers" (from the local word for "y'all," yinz). The dialect has some tonal similarities to other nearby regional dialects (ie, Erie, Baltimore), but is noted for its somewhat staccato rhythms. The staccato qualities of the Pittsburgh dialect have been suggested to originate either from Welsh or from Eastern European immigrants. It also has so many local peculiarities that the New York Times described Pittsburgh as "the Galapagos Islands of American dialect."[23] The lexicon itself contains notable cognates borrowing from Croatian and other Slavic and European languages. Examples include babushka, pierogi, and halušky.[24]

11-07-2007, 09:28:28
[edit] Economy

The growth of Pittsburgh and its economy was caused by the extensive trade of steel. Since, Pittsburgh has adapted to the collapse of the region's steel industry. The primary industries have shifted more to high technology, such as robotics, health care, nuclear engineering, tourism, biomedical technology, finance, and services. Education is also a major employer, from primary through magnet schools, specialized professional institutes and highly-ranked universities. In fact, Pittsburgh still maintains its status as a corporate headquarters city, with seven Fortune 500 companies calling the city home. This ranks Pittsburgh in a tie for the sixth-most Fortune 500 headquarters in the nation.[25] In 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Pittsburgh among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion.[26]

[edit] Major employers

See also: List of major corporations in Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh has grown its industry base in recent years to include technology, retail, finance and medicine. The largest employer in the city is the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, followed closely by the University of Pittsburgh[citation needed].

Fortune 500 Corporations:

* Allegheny Technologies
* H. J. Heinz Company
* Mellon Financial Corporation
* PNC Financial
* PPG Industries
* WESCO International
* U.S. Steel

Fortune 1000 Corporations:

* Allegheny Energy
* American Eagle Outfitters
* Consol Energy
* Dick's Sporting Goods
* Kennametal
* Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel

Other major employers in the Pittsburgh area include the operations center for Alcoa, the North American headquarters for Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline and Lanxess. Pittsburgh is the Northeast U.S. regional headquarters for Nova Chemicals, FedEx Ground, Ariba, Rand, and National City. Guru.com, 84 Lumber, Giant Eagle, Highmark, Rue 21, and GENCO are major non-public companies with headquarters in the region. Other major companies headquartered in Pittsburgh include Mylan Laboratories, General Nutrition Center (GNC), and CNX Gas (CXG), a subsidiary of Consol Energy.

[edit] Government and politics
Henry Hornbostel's Pittsburgh City-County Building
Henry Hornbostel's Pittsburgh City-County Building
Henry Hobson Richardson's Allegheny County Courthouse
Henry Hobson Richardson's Allegheny County Courthouse
Carnegie Mellon University campus, with the University of Pittsburgh's Cathedral of Learning in the background.
Carnegie Mellon University campus, with the University of Pittsburgh's Cathedral of Learning in the background.

From the American Civil War to the 1930s, Pittsburgh was a Republican stronghold. Democratic candidates have been elected consecutively to either the mayor's office or city council since 1933, when David L. Lawrence was able to lead the party to power due to the alleged corruption and fraction of the Pittsburgh Republican Party and the election of President Roosevelt whose New Deal began the recovery from the Great Depression, by which the workers of Pittsburgh were especially hard hit.[27] Today, the ratio of Democratic to Republican registrations within the city limits is 5 to 1.[citation needed]

The mayor, like the nine-member council, serves a four-year term. The seat of government is the Pittsburgh City-County Building. After the death of Mayor Bob O'Connor in September 2006, City Council President Luke Ravenstahl was sworn as the new mayor of Pittsburgh. At 26, he is both the youngest mayor in Pittsburgh's history,[4] and in the history of any major American city.[5] He will serve this position until a new mayoral election is held in November 2007.[6] City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts. The Pittsburgh Police Bureau is the law enforcement arm of the city while the Pittsburgh Fire Bureau is a major emergency response unit in Western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh EMS provides heavy rescue and river rescue services to the city.

Like many American cities, Pittsburgh has recently faced financial challenges and budget shortfalls. Although the cause of the city's budget shortfall is debated, many cite the success of the medical and academic sectors, since the nonprofits are tax-exempt. Despite the budget crisis, the city has continued to grow, as evidenced by the recent addition of the American Eagle Outfitters corporate headquarters, renovation of the former Lazarus-Macy's department store into high-end retail, office, and condo space, and multiple mixed-use towers under construction downtown. As further evidence of recovery from these fiscal problems, Pittsburgh had a $15 million surplus in 2005.

[edit] Education

Main article: Education in Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh is home to the following institutions of higher learning:

* Carnegie Mellon University
* University of Pittsburgh
* Duquesne University
* Robert Morris University
* Carlow University
* Point Park University
* Chatham University
* Pittsburgh Theological Seminary
* Community College of Allegheny County
* Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary
* Art Institute of Pittsburgh
* Pennsylvania Culinary Institute
* LaRoche College

The most visible institutions of higher education in Pittsburgh are Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. Carnegie Mellon University is ranked in the top 25 of national universities in US News & World Report; the university's strengths include computer science, drama, business, public policy, engineering, design, art, and architecture. The University of Pittsburgh, ranked in the top 25 public universities in US News & World Report, has its strengths in philosophy of science, Asian studies, business, philosophy, law, engineering, and medical care.

Robert Morris University, based in the suburb of Moon Township, Pennsylvania, maintains a satellite center in downtown Pittsburgh.

Pittsburgh Public School teachers are paid well relative to their peers, ranking 17th in 2000–2001 among the 100 largest cities by population for the highest minimum salary offered to teachers with a BA ($34,300). Pittsburgh ranked fifth in the highest maximum salary offered to teachers with an MA ($66,380). Local public schools include many charter and magnet schools, including City Charter High School (computer and technology focused), Pittsburgh Montessori School (formerly Homewood Montessori), Pittsburgh Gifted Center, Frick International Studies Academy, Rogers Middle School for the Creative and Performing Arts, Pittsburgh High School for the Creative and Performing Arts, and several schools for blind, deaf, or otherwise challenged children.

Private schools in Pittsburgh include Seton-La Salle Catholic High School, a merger of the former South Catholic and Elizabeth Ann Seton High Schools. Located in the South Hills, Seton-La Salle is the highest enrolled co-educational high school in the Diocese of Pittsburgh.

Central Catholic High School is run by the Christian Brothers of St. John Baptiste de La Salle. Oakland Catholic High School, an all-girls high school, is located less than two blocks away from Central Catholic High School. Both high schools are located in Oakland. The Shadyside neighborhood includes Winchester Thurston School and The Ellis School. Shady Side Academy, whose main campuses are located in Fox Chapel, has a junior high school in the neighborhood of Point Breeze.

Bishop Canevin High School, located in Carnegie, is a Catholic, diocesan, co-educational, college-preparatory institution.

[edit] Culture
Lobby of Heinz Hall.
Lobby of Heinz Hall.

Main article: Pittsburgh culture

In the 19th and 20th centuries, wealthy businessmen and nonprofit organizations donated millions of dollars to create educational and cultural institutions. As a result, Pittsburgh is rich in art and culture.

Among the professional music venues, the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra performs in Heinz Hall, and the Pittsburgh Opera performs in the Benedum Center. Both The Benedum Center and Heinz Hall provide venues for other groups, such as the River City Brass Band and the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony Orchestra. Pittsburgh has a long tradition of jazz, blues and bluegrass music. Pittsburgh also has a large indie and punk rock scene. Additionally the National Negro Opera Company was founded in Pittsburgh, and was the first all African-American opera company in the United States. This led to the prominence of African-American singers like Leontyne Price in the world of opera.

Pittsburgh Dance Council and the Pittsburgh Ballet Theater host a variety of dance events. Polka, folk, square and round dancing have a long history in the city and are celebrated by the internationally famous Duquesne University Tamburitzans, a multicultural academy dedicated to the preservation and presentation of folk songs and dance.

Museums include the Andy Warhol Museum, the Carnegie Museum of Art and the Frick Art & Historical Center. Installation art is featured outdoors at ArtGardens of Pittsburgh. The Carnegie Museum of Natural History has extensive dinosaur collections and an Ancient Egypt wing. The Carnegie Science Center is technology oriented. The Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center and Western Pennsylvania Sports Museum are located in the Strip District. The unusual and eclectic Bayernhof Music Museum is six miles (9 km) from downtown.

In theater, the Pittsburgh Playhouse of Point Park University has four resident companies of professional actors. Other companies include Attack Theatre, City Theatre, Pittsburgh Irish and Classical Theatre, Pittsburgh Musical Theater, Pittsburgh Public Theater, and Quantum Theater. The city's longest-running theatre show, Friday Nite Improvs, is an improv jam that has been performed in the Cathedral of Learning and other

11-07-2007, 09:28:53
See also: List of people from Pittsburgh

[edit] Livability

Pittsburgh often places high in lists of the nation's most livable cities. Cost of living, crime, cultural opportunities and other factors are considered in these rankings for livability.

Pittsburgh has a low cost of living compared to other cities in the northeastern U.S. The average price for a 3- to 4-bedroom, 2-bath family home in Pittsburgh is $162,000, which is well below the national average of $264,540, as of October 2004, according to the Federal Housing Finance Board.

After placing No. 4 and No. 1 in the first two editions of "Places Rated Almanac," Pittsburgh went on to finish third in 1989, fifth in 1993, 14th in 1997 and 12th in 2000. While that gives the impression of a moderate decline, primary author David Savageau noted Pittsburgh is the only city to finish in the top 20 of every edition. In the 2004, 820-page book by Bert Sperling and Peter Sander, "Cities Ranked and Rated," Pittsburgh came in at #28. In the 2007 edition, Pittsburgh was rated as the No. 1 livable city.

In 2005, The Economist ranked Pittsburgh and Cleveland the top most livable cities in the United States, and tied the cities for 26th world-wide.

In 2007, the 25th anniversary edition of "Places Rated Almanac" rated Pittsburgh the most livable city in America, over cities like San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington DC.[28]

On another note in 2007, the American Lung Association ranked the Pittsburgh area as the nation's second most polluted metropolitan area.[29]

[edit] Crime

Pittsburgh has experienced an ebb and flow of crime over the last few years, marked by the recent spike in violent crimes such as murder, rape, and armed robbery. Recent crime statistics indicate that the Pittsburgh murder rate is 2.61 times that of the national average, which is considered high for a city of its size. Overall the ‘violent crime’ rate for the city is about 2 times the national average, while the ‘property’ or non-violent crime rate is about 1.11 times the national average.[30]

[edit] Media

Main article: Media in Pittsburgh

[edit] Sports

Main article: Pittsburgh Sports

Pittsburgh's dedication to sports has a long history. Both its professional and collegiate teams have championship records. Three separate colleges have sent their football teams to major bowl games. The Pitt Panthers have won multiple national titles in both football and men's basketball. As home to two of the most successful teams in the former Negro League, the Pittsburgh Crawfords and the Homestead Grays (credited with as many as 14 titles between them and with 11 hall of famers), as well as the first Major League Baseball team to field an all-black lineup, the 1971 Pittsburgh Pirates, "no city is more synonymous with black baseball than Pittsburgh."[31]

The Pittsburgh region also has developed several NFL quarterbacks, giving Western Pennsylvania the nickname, "Cradle of Quarterbacks."[32] Dan Marino, Joe Montana, Joe Namath, Jim Kelly, Marc Bulger, current Houston Texans starter Matt Schaub, George Blanda, Jeff Hostetler, Johnny Unitas, current Tampa Bay Buccaneers quarterback, Bruce Gradkowski, and current Pittsburgh Steelers backup quarterback Charlie Batch are from the area. Several famous running backs, including Tony Dorsett, Curtis Martin, Kevan Barlow, Mercury Morris, Larry Brown and Ernie Davis are also from Pittsburgh. Several former offensive line greats, including Jim Covert, Russ Grimm and Bill Fralic also hail from the area. Several notable defensive players are from the Pittsburgh area, including Pro Hall of Famers Joe Schmidt and Randy White, defensive end Jason Taylor, cornerback Ty Law and linebacker LaVar Arrington (former Steelers standout Jack Ham was from Johnstown, 65 miles from Pittsburgh). Two notable NHL players from the Pittsburgh area include Ryan Malone of the Penguins and R.J. Umberger of the Flyers. There is also a long list of baseball stars such as Ken Griffey, Jr., Ken Griffey, Sr., Stan Musial, Honus Wagner, and the claimed hometown of Curt Schilling, as well as numerous Olympic gold medal winners such as wrestler Kurt Angle, Roger Kingdom and John Woodruff. Pittsburgh is also the home to former professional golfer Arnold Palmer and was where Jim Furyk was raised with the game. Pittsburgh also claims many major league coaching legends as its own including Marvin Lewis, Mike Ditka, Marty Schottenheimer, Mike McCarthy, Bill Cowher, Barry Alvarez, Chuck Knox, Terry Francona, Ken Macha and Art Howe. Jim Leyland has made his home in Pittsburgh for the last 25 years. For these reasons, Pittsburgh has been called the "City of Champions."

See also: List of people from Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh is the only city that all major sports teams (Steelers, Penguins, and Pirates) share the same two colors, black and gold. Although unofficial, the colorscheme is used by the city's police department, fire department and are the dominate colors on the flag and seal. Many downtown fire hydrants even show the "Pittsburgh colors".
Club Sport League, Conference Venue Major Championships
Pittsburgh Steelers American Football National Football League; AFC North Heinz Field Super Bowl Champions: 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979, 2006
Pittsburgh Penguins Ice Hockey National Hockey League; Eastern Atlantic Mellon Arena Stanley Cup Champions: 1990–91, 1991–92
Pittsburgh Pirates Baseball Major League Baseball; NL Central PNC Park National League Champions (pre-World Series): 1901, 1902; World Series Champions: 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, 1979
Pittsburgh Xplosion Basketball Continental Basketball Association; American Division Mellon Arena
Petersen Events Center
Pittsburgh Riverhounds Soccer USL Second Division CONSOL Energy Park
Pittsburgh Passion American Football National Women's Football Association; Northern Conference George K. Cupples Stadium
Pittsburgh RiverRats Indoor football American Indoor Football League; North Division Rostraver Ice Garden beginning play in 2007
Pittsburgh Harlequins Rugby Union Mid-Atlantic Rugby Football Union Division I; Potomac Rugby Union Founders Field

[edit] Infrastructure

[edit] Transportation

Main article: Transportation in Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh is a city of bridges—446 in total.[4] Pittsburgh has more bridges than Venice, Italy, which has historically held the title of "City of Bridges". Around 40 bridges cross the three rivers near the city. The southern "entrance" to Downtown is through the Fort Pitt Tunnel and over the Fort Pitt Bridge. The Panhandle Bridge carries the Port Authority's 42-S/47-L/52 subway lines across the Monongahela River. All told, over 2,000 bridges dot the landscape of Allegheny County.[33]

The main highway connecting Pittsburgh to the Pennsylvania Turnpike (I-76) on the east is I-376, locally known as the "Parkway East," while I-279 (called either the "Parkway North" or the "Parkway West," depending on its location relative to Downtown) connects the city with points north and west. I-76 (Pennsylvania Turnpike), I-79, and I-70, roughly form a triangular-shaped "beltway". Navigation around Pittsburgh can also be accomplished via the Pittsburgh/Allegheny County Belt System.

[edit] Airports

The city is served by the highly-ranked[34] Pittsburgh International Airport (IATA: PIT) about 10 miles to the west in Findlay Township. The airport also promotes the region as a focus city for US Airways and has been a major operation for the airline since the company's inception in the 1940s with the city being recently chosen by the airline to house its entire dispatch center, relocating it from its headquarters in Phoenix, Arizona. Artdeco style Allegheny County Airport (AGC) handles 139,000 general aviation flights a year, and is located south-southeast of the city in West Mifflin.

[edit] Port Authority

Port Authority of Allegheny County, commonly known as the Port Authority, but sometimes referred to by its former nickname "PAT" or "PAT Transit," is the region's mass transit system. While serving only a portion of the Pittsburgh area's 20th largest metro area it is the 11th largest transit agency in the nation. Port Authority runs a network of inter- and intracity bus routes, one funiculars (more commonly known as "inclines") on Mount Washington (used primarily by tourists rather than a means of commuting), a light rail system that runs mostly above-ground in the suburbs and underground as a subway in the city, and one of the nation's largest busway systems[citation needed].

The city has Amtrak intercity rail service at Pennsylvania Station, as well as various freight railroads. Current railroads include Norfolk Southern, CSX and Amtrak.

An additional funicular ("incline") owned by PAAC is run by a non-profit preservation trust.

[edit] Telecommunications

The city is served by the 412 and 878 area codes since 2001, while most outlaying suburbs are served by both the 724 and 878 area codes. The city is served by Verizon as the dominant local carrier.

[edit] Sites of interest

Pittsburgh houses the country's National Aviary. The Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens features a Victorian-style greenhouse. The Botanic Garden of Western Pennsylvania and Rodef Shalom Biblical Botanical Garden are also located in the area.

Other sites of interest include:

* Duquesne Incline
* Monongahela Incline
* Fort Duquesne
* Fort Pitt (Pennsylvania)
* Kennywood - historic amusement park
* Sandcastle - waterpark
* Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh - art and natural history
* Cathedral of Learning - part of the University of Pittsburgh, well known for its "Nationality Rooms"
* Mattress Factory - museum of contemporary installation art
* Frick Art & Historical Center - art museum, Clayton- the restored Frick mansion, car and carriage museum

11-07-2007, 09:33:09
Oh. Now I get it :o

11-07-2007, 09:33:41

Mr. Bas
11-07-2007, 09:56:09
I also didn't get the Chris de Burgh thread until now. :D

11-07-2007, 10:03:37

11-07-2007, 10:25:30
Originally posted by Mr. Bas
I also didn't get the Chris de Burgh thread until now. :D


(I assumed mr_G must be posting as Drekkus, because it was a bit clever for him)

11-07-2007, 10:30:11
mrb isn't that creative, you know that

11-07-2007, 10:31:00
He can only be funny in happy little ways.

C.G.B. Spender
11-07-2007, 10:52:28
since when?

11-07-2007, 10:55:35
Since he's a dwarf

C.G.B. Spender
11-07-2007, 10:56:53

11-07-2007, 11:10:56

C.G.B. Spender
11-07-2007, 11:13:02
I quoted your first post

11-07-2007, 11:45:41
Originally posted by Tizzy
He can only be funny in happy little ways. :eek: